Packaging is an important part of the food industry, especially for frozen items. Packaging that is too thin or that is not made of the right materials can lead to "freezer burn": on the other hand, overprotecting food leads to unnecessary costs.
In the past, the standard practice was to overengineer material layers so that they always maintained protective barrier properties. This might mean applying 20 percent or more excess material to the final product. At more than $5 per pound, this material could cost more than several hundred thousand dollars a year.